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L.L. JOHNSON LUMBER MFG. CO. & JOHNSON'S WORKBENCH
EVERYTHING FOR THE WOODWORKER
   

 

 

PLYWOOD SPECIALS
GARAGE SALE
For smaller plywood jobs, we have half sheets of many species with minimal damage at garage sale prices. MORE INFORMATION
 
LUMBER SHORTS
SHORT 'N SWEET!
6' - 7' lengths perfect for schools and cabinet shops. As clear and defect free as hardwood gets.
MORE INFORMATION...
LUMBER SPECIES GUIDE
  AFROMOSIA (West Africa)
 
This Teak substitute is a favorite of some boat builders because it darkens with time instead of bleaching out like Teak when exposed to weather. It has a rich brown color and interesting grain patterns. The average weight is 3-1/2 pounds per board foot and durable enough for a wide range of interior and exterior uses.
  AKWA (South Pacific)
 
Also called Taun. Popular substitute for Philippine Mahogany exhibiting similar color and machining characteristics. The grain is usually straight but sometimes interlocked with a regular wave. Works well with hand machine tools. Can be polished to a very smooth high finish
  ALDER (Domestic)
 
Red Alder is almost white when freshly cut, but quickly changes on exposure to air, becoming light brown with a yellow or reddish tinge. Heartwood is formed only in trees of advanced age and there is no visible boundary between sap and heartwood. The wood is fairly straight-grained with a uniform texture. Alder machines well and is excellent for turning. It nails, screws and glues well, and can be sanded, painted or stained to a good finish. It dries easily with little degrade and has good dimensional stability after drying. Alder is a relatively soft hardwood of medium density that has low bending strength, shock resistance and stiffness.
  ANIGRE (Africa)
 
Heartwood is cream color with a pinkish tinge. Generally has straight grain, medium texture and a cedar like scent. It has good nailing, screwing, gluing and staining properties & takes polish well. Uses include furniture & cabinet work, and high class jointery.
  ASH (Domestic)
Widely known as White Ash, the heartwood of this wood has a grey-brown color while the sapwood tends to be a creamy color. Weighs 3.2 pounds per board foot and is very durable. Generally straight grained and even textured. Relatively light weight if compared to its strength - very strong and is used for a variety of sporting products, baseball bats and hockey sticks. A good substitute for Red Oak.
  ASPEN (Domestic)
 
Also known as Trembling Aspen and Quaking Aspen. The color is pale biscuit to a cream grey. Lightweight wood with a fairly straight grain which gives it easy workability. This lumber can be compared to Poplar and Cottonwood. Craft makers like this material as it can be used in a variety of products and it is relatively inexpensive.
  BALSA (Ecuador)
 
A Grade. Creamy white in color, average width 3-4", lengths 3-4'. Its soft, even texture and light weight makes it a popular model-making material. It is stronger than polystyrene or granulated cork. Easy to work with thin sharp edged tools. The lightest commercial timber weighing only 1 pound per board foot.
  BANAK (Central/South America)
 
  Also called Virola and Sangre. The wood is light pinkish-brown with medium to high luster, weighing about 2.5 pounds per board foot. Banak is generally straight grained, easy to work, glues without difficulty, holds nails well, and accepts finishes readily. Used in production of mouldings.
  BASSWOOD (Domestic)
 
Also called American Lime and Linn. The heartwood is very light brown in color, the sapwood nearly white. Basswood weighs 2.7 pounds per board foot. One of the softest hardwoods in commercial use, noted for fine, even grain and exceptional stability. Basswood is well suited for carving and such technical uses as beehives and honey sections, picture frames, woodenware, toys, and food containers.
  BEECH (Domestic)
 
Pale reddish brown in color. It has a straight grain with a fine even texture, and weighs 4.0 pounds per board foot. Machines cleanly and has good nailing and gluing properties. An excellent turning wood. Often used in cabinetry, flooring, turning, furniture and tool handles. Can be finished to resemble more expensive woods. Heavy wood weighing 4 pounds per board foot.
  BENGE (Africa)
 
  Other names include Mutenye and Libengi. The color is pale yellowish brown to medium brown with a faint reddish tint including black veining. This is a heavy weight wood with an interlocked and sometimes wavy grain which gives off a highly decorative appearance. Working properties are good but some difficulty may occur because of the grain pattern. This lumber is used in cabinet work, furniture, and heavy duty flooring. Also used in veneers and may be considered as a substitute for Walnut.
  BIRCH (Domestic)
 
Also called Betula Wood and Yellow Birch. The color ranges from a light yellow sapwood to a reddish brown heartwood. Has a medium weight density with a straight and close grain. This wood weighs 3.6 pounds per board foot and is easily worked with a moderate dulling effect. It glues and takes stains well. Uses include furniture and cabinets. Available sorted for sapwood if a clear white appearance is desired.
  BLACK WILLOW (Domestic)
  Light tan to dark brown in color. It works easily but sharp tooling is recommended to avoid fuzziness. It nails, screws, and glues very well. The wood is soft, flexible, straight grained, and fairly strong. Weighs 2.5 pounds per board foot. It is used in crafts, furniture, artificial limbs and is very popular with school shop classes. It can be stained to imitate walnut.
  BLOODWOOD (Tropical America)
  Also known as Cardinal Wood, the color is a deep rich red. Very heavy wood with grain that varies from straight to variable. This is a strong, hard and tough wood that is quite durable. Works fairly easily for all tooling operations - glues and stains well. Used in fine furniture and inlay work.
  BOCOTE (West Indies)
  Bocote is also known by many other names with the most common being Cordia. The weight of this wood is medium and the dull golden brown color mixed with flecked rays on quartered surfaces make for an attractive lumber. Very good to work with - minimum dulling effect on tooling, while gluing and finishing well. Has been used in boat decking, cabinets and furniture.
  BUBINGA (Central Africa)
 
It is also commercially known as African Rosewood. The medium red-brown color with light red to purple veining and the intermittent straight and interlocked grain make it an exquisite lumber. The density of this wood is heavy and the working properties tend to be on the difficult side. Bubinga is excellent turning stock and makes a good knife handle.
  BUTTERNUT (Domestic)
  Other common names are White Walnut and Oilnut. Heartwood is light brown or fawn, sapwood is lighter. The lumber weighs 2.65 pounds per board. The texture is rather coarse and the grain straight to irregular, carrying a strong resemblance to Walnut, though it is softer and lighter in color. Butternut is easy to work, machines, turns and sands well. A good cabinet wood, also used for interior trim and paneling.
  CANARY WOOD (South America)
  It's color can be yellow, or orange, but usually variegated yellow, orange and red, some with purplish streaks, and some turing uniformly dark red with age. Luster usually high, odor and taste not distinct. Hard and heavy weight 47 to 63 lbs. per cu. ft. Grain straight to roey. Texture fine. Used for furniture and cabinets, interior finish, flooring.
  CEDAR - Aromatic Red (Domestic)
  Actually a juniper, Eastern Red Cedar is best known for its unique scent and use in Cedar chests and Cedar closets. Standard length is 8 foot long and wide boards free of the white sapwood are not available. The numerous tight knots add to the novelty and character of the specie. Lightweight at only 2.8 pounds per board foot, machines easy between the knots, glues and stains well.
  CEDAR - Spanish (Central/South America)
  Also known as South American Cedar or Cigar-Box Cedar. The color ranges from pale-pinkish brown to dark reddish brown. The weight of Spanish Cedar is considered light and the strength is very good in relation to its weight. The grain tends to be straight and shallowly interlocked. An easy wood to work with, the only problem comes from intermittent gum pockets. Used for furniture and cabinet work and a favorite for cigar boxes.
  CEDAR - Western Red (Domestic)
  Lumber is a reddish brown color, weighing about 2 pounds per board foot air dried. Light weight, remarkably durable under exposure to rain and sun, heat and cold. Stains well for exterior purposes, machines and seasons readily. Commonly used for shingles, exterior millwork and construction of all types where durability is important. Also used for sash and doors, small boats, and interior trim. May cause skin, eye and respiratory irritation.
  CEDAR - White (Domestic)
  The fragrant wood of cedar is soft, straight grained and brittle. Color is white to yellowish brown. Lightweight and durable when in contact with moisture. Used for fence posts, outdoor furniture, birdfeeders, paneling and cabin logs. It weighs only 2 lbs per board foot.
  CHAKTE-KOK (Sickingia salvadorensis)
  Pronounced CHOHK-tay COKE, this is a very bright red wood. It is a lesser known species that has surprisingly good working characteristic. Since it is less known, it has no historical significance, and no real prevalent use. But, it seems to stand on its own as a nice colored, unique wood.
  CHERRY (Domestic)
  Of the 25 to 30 species in the U.S., only Black Cherry or Prunus Serotina is important for lumber. The rich reddish-brown heartwood of Cherry has made it one to the most popular cabinet woods available. Cherry weighs from 3 to 3-1/2 pounds per board foot and has a fine, straight closed tight grain. Machines, glues, finishes very well and darkens with age.
  COCOBOLLO (Central America)
  Also know as Granadilla in Mexico, color varies from dark brown streaks to orange-reddish zones. Heavy wood with an irregular and variable grain pattern. This helps create a very strong wood and tools must be kept very sharp while working with it. Decorative items such as turnings, handles and trinkets are its main uses. May cause skin and eye irritation.
  DOUGLAS FIR (Domestic/Mexico)
  Heartwood varies with conditions of growth, from pinkish-yellow to reddishbrown, sapwood lighter. Weighs 2.6 pounds per board foot. Soft, course textured and straight grained, the strongest of all American woods in comparison to weight. Used for construction of all types, planing mill products including doors, sash, interior trim, flooring and ceiling moldings.
  EBONY (West Africa)
  Other common names are African Ebony, Black Ebony, and Macassar Ebony. Typically black in color, weighing 6 pounds per board foot. Extremely hard and dense, with straight to irregular grain patterns. Comes from small trees and is inclined in any size to develop checking after the project is finished. Used for inlays, small articles of turning, handles, and marquetry. May cause skin, eye and respiratory irritation.
  ELM (Domestic)
  Other common names are Gray Elm, Soft White Elm, and Wahoo. Heartwood is pale brown, occasionally tinted reddish to brown, sapwood is light and has a creamy tan cast. Weights 3.1 pounds per board foot. Coarse texture, medium density, straight grain to slightly irregular. Strong for its weight, elastic, and shock resistant. Machines and bends well. Good finishing characteristics, stains and finishes well. Used for multiple purposes such as bent handles for baskets, vehicle parts and frames, special types of furniture and for industrial purposes.
  ELM BOW STOCK (Domestic)
  Elm Bow Stock is also reffered to as Red Elm. Popularly used in manufacturing laminated bows, because of its pleasing grain and strength properties. Heartwood color is dull brown, texture is course. Also used in cabinet work and chair frames.
  GONCOLA ALVES (Mexico)
  Reddish-brown with dark brown streaks. This hard, heavy, dense wood is strong in all categories. A real heavyweight at almost 5 pounds per board foot, but still described as easy to work.
  HICKORY (Domestic)
  Also called Shagbark and Pignut. Heartwood is light reddish brown and the sapwood white. Hickory weighs 4.4 pounds per board foot, rough and kiln dried. Medium coarse texture and straight grain, very hard, elastic and strong. Machines, burns, and steam bends well. Used for vehicle and implement parts, cabinets, flooring and is famous for smoking meats.
  HOLLY (World-wide except Australia)
  As white as wood comes and a fine even grain that polishes with ease, Holly is a favorite for inlays. Sometimes difficult to work with, keep your tools sharp and you may need to reduce the cutting angles. Other uses include musical instruments, keys for pianos and organs, and turnings.
  IPE' (Latin America)
  Also called Lapacho; olive brown with lighter and darker streaks, Ipe is a super heavyweight at over 6 pounds per board foot. Heavier and two to three times harder than Oak makes a superior outdoor decking. Uses include tool handles, archery bows, fishing rods, carpentry, cabinet work and the Atlantic City Boardwalk. Possible skin, eye, respiratory irritation.
  IROKO
  Golden orange to brown, grain is interlocked and irregular, texture is course. May contain large, hard deposits of calcium corbonate in cavities and the wood around them is dark in color. Used for ship and boat building, furniture making, and carving. Possible skin, eye, respiratory irritation.
  JATOBA (South America)
  Other common names include Brazilian Cherry, South American Locust and Courbaril. Color is reddish-brown on the surface with a subtle golden yellow beneath. Texture is medium and the grain is interlocked. Hard, durable and good shock resistance. Used for furniture, tool handles and flooring.
  JELUTONG (Bornea/Malaya)
  Straw colored and straight grained with a fine even texture. Appearance can be interrupted by latex canals along the grain. Nails and screws well and can be glued satisfactorily. Popular with carvers and patternmakers. Weighs 2.6 lbs per board foot.
  KINGWOOD (Brazil)
  Also called Violetta. At 6.25 lbs per bd foot it is one of the heaviest species available. Very popular with antique furniture restorers because it was used extensively in France during the reigns of Louis XIV and XV. Chiefly used today for inlay and marquetry.
  KOA (Hawaii)
  Golden brown with dark streaks, has a Walnut-like texture. Used for furniture, also the traditional Hawaiian cabinet wood. Middleweight at 3.4lbs per board foot. Sharp saws, knives and sandpaper are essential in machining because Koa is quickly burned by any dull rubbing action. Ukuleles are made from Koa.
  LACEWOOD (Europe/West Asia)
  Also known as European Plane - which when quartersawn attains the name Lacewood. Light-reddish brown color and the fleck on the quartered material will display itself against the light colored background. Weight can be classified as medium and fairly straight grain, and moderate strength, therefore giving it fairly good workability. Used in fine cabinetry and inlay work.
  MAHOGANY - African (West Africa)
  Also called khaya. The texture is milder than Genuine Mahogany but tends to be coarser and possess a more salmon tinted color. Utilized in many of the same applications as Genuine Mahogany due to it's similar characteristics. It is not as firm as Genuine Mahogany but it is lighter weighing in at about 3.2 lbs per bd foot.
  MAHOGANY - Genuine (Central America)
  Yellowish to reddish-brown in color. An excellent choice for almost any application because of its natural luster, fine texture, strength to weight ratio, working and finishing properties. Available in plain sawn, pattern (straight grain) and ribbon stripe (quarter sawn). Weighs 3.5 lbs per board foot. Possible skin, eye, respiratory irritation.
  MAHOGANY -Philippine (Philippines)
  Light red to a medium red shade in color. Lightweight, durable, easily machined, takes nails and screws well and glues satisfactorily. Popular with boatbuilders and furniture makers. Weighs 3.9 lbs per board foot. Possible skin, eye, respiratory irritation.
  MAPLE - Hard (Domestic)
  Color ranges from a premium white sapwood to a brown heartwood. Also known as Rock Maple or Sugar Maple and can be tapped to extrude the sap for syrup. Weighs 4 pounds per board foot. Moderately difficult to work with as it tends to dull machinery rather quickly. Takes stain, glue and polish satisfactorily. A favorite for flooring and butcher blocks.
  MAPLE - Soft (Domestic)
  Sapwood is light in color while the heartwood is pale brown. Hard, close grained, strong and easy to work. Similar to Hard Maple but is not so lustrous and is softer and lighter weighing 3.2 pounds board foot. Good for trim, furniture and a less expensive Birch substitute. Weighs 3.2 pounds per board foot.
  MASSARANDUBA (Brazillian Redwood)
  An exotic hardwood with one of the highest ratings for strength, hardness, and decay resistance. Massaranduba has heartwood with a beautiful dark reddish brown color that is nearly blemished free -- consistent color and fine texture with medium luster and grain straight to slightly irregular. An environmentally conscious lumber with no need for preservatives --just an annual treatment with an oil-based hardwood finish or it will fade to a silver gray hue. Moderately easy to saw, pre-drilling recommended, sanding qualities and steam bending properties are reported to be very good; popular uses of Massaranduba are: Boat construction, Decking, Furniture, Custom Cabinets, and Flooring.
  OAK - English Brown (Domestic)
  Light tan to deep brown in color with a course grain and noticable figure. This rarer species of oak is prized by cabinet makers for its workability, strength, durability, and beauty.
  OAK - Red (Domestic)
  Also referred to as Pin Oak and Black Oak. Salmon pink color, and weighs 3 pounds per board foot. Medium open-pored texture with straight grain. Very hard, heavy and strong. Easy to work, turns, carves, and bends well. Finishing qualities are excellent. Used for interior trim, cabinets and furniture.
  OAK - White (Domestic)
  May also be referred to as Chestnut Oak. Color is pale-yellow brown. This closed pore wood makes it relatively heavy, the grain is straight and it is a hard and tough timber. Working properties are fair with the slower growth northern trees easier to work. Weighs 4.2 pounds per board foot. Stains and polishes to a good finish. Used for furniture and cabinets and makes excellent paneling.
  OBECHE (West Africa)
  Creamy white to pale yellow in color. Comparable to Basswood, even in texture, easy to work with hand and machine tools. Stains and polishes well but the grain needs to be filled. A good pattern wood, cabinet framing, and drawer sides. Weighs 2 lbs per board foot. Possible skin, eye, respiratory irritation.
  PADAUK (West Africa)
  Sometimes called Vermilion, bright red to dark purple-brown with contrasting darker streaks. Grain is straight to interlocked and machines, screws, glues, and polishes very well. Weight varies at about 3-1/2 to 4 pounds per board foot and has excellent strength properties. Used for turnings, cabinets, and fine furniture. Possible skin irritation.
  PINE - Eastern White (Domestic)
  This light colored wood resembles straw in appearance. Soft straight grained and even textured wood weighing 2.2 pounds per board foot. Works very easily with hand and machine tools. Glues well and takes stain, paint very well. The most valuable softwood in North America, as it can be used in almost any piece of furniture or most any form of general carpentry.
  PINE - Ponderosa (Domestic)
  Light orange brown to reddish brown. Fine to medium texture and straight grained. The most resinous of the pines. Easy to work with, although finishing can be tricky due to its gumminess. Uses include furniture, construction, window frames and interior trim. Weighs 2.2 pounds per board foot.
  PINE - Sugar (Domestic)
  Cream to light tan in color, it has a soft fine texture and straight grain. Large trees result in better width and length averages than other pines. Its characteristics make it especially suited to the pattern industry. Weighs 2.6 pounds per board foot.
  PINE - Yellow (Southern US)
  Creamy white sapwood, yellow red to reddish brown heartwood. Very resinous, conspicuous growth ring figure, course texture. Weight 4.21 lbs./ft. Dries well with little degrade and is stable in service. High bending and crushing strengths, high stiffness, medium resist to shock. Holds screws and nails firmly, glues with out difficulty, takes paint and finishes satisfactorily.
  PINK IVORY (Africa)
  A very rich pink color and heavy weight make this wood easy to identify. Has a fine texture, is easy to work, and takes a fine polish. Rare and very expensive.
  POPLAR (Domestic)
  Common name is Tulip Tree. Heartwood is a pale olive brown to yellow brown and sapwood off white. Weighs 3.2 pounds per board foot, texture is fairly fine and uniform, close and straight grained. Relatively soft with low density, glues easily, holds its place well, does not split readily, yet soft enough to be a favorite for working with hand tools. Used for paint and enamel finishes, store fixtures, trim, toys, and other novelty items.
  PURPLEHEART (Central/South America)
  Also known as Violetwood in the U.S. Color is a deep purple violet and grain is often irregular and sometimes interlocked. This wood can be considered heavy, dense and can be difficult to work with as it dulls machinery quickly. Uses include inlay, turnery and furniture. Possible skin, eye, respiratory irritation.
  REDWOOD (California)
  Light cherry red to dark reddish brown. Moderately strong for its weight with a fine even texture. The heartwood is highly durable and machines easily. Great for decking, trim and outdoor applications. Weighs 2.4 pounds per board foot.
  ROSEWOOD - East Indian (India)
  Also called Indian Rosewood, its color is unique - from rose to dark purple with darker purple veins separating the two. Can be considered a medium to heavy weight wood with a narrowly interlocked grain. Very strong wood and is tough on tooling. The extra steps in fine sanding and filling the grain are worth the beautiful finished product. Used in high class furniture, musical instruments and turnings. Possible skin, eye irritation.
   
   
   
   
   
   

 

LUMBER TERMS

DENDROCHRONOLOGY: is the science of calculating a tree's age by its rings.

 

GRAIN: A general term referring to the arrangement, appearance, and direction of wood fibers. Among the many types of grain are fine, coarse, straight, curly, open, flat, vertical, and spiral.

 

GREEN: Unseasoned; not dry. Lumber with a moisture content of 19% or more.

 

FINGERJOINTED: A method of joining two pieces of lumber end-to-end by sawing into the end of each piece a set of projecting "fingers" that interlock. When the pieces are pushed together, this forms a strong glue joint.

 

HARDWOOD: A general term referring to any variety of broad-leaved, deciduous trees, and the wood from those trees. The term has nothing to do with the actual hardness of the wood; some hardwoods are softer than certain softwood (evergreen) species.

 

KNOT: A branch or limb embedded in a tree and cut through in the process of manufacturing. Knots are classified according to size, quality and occurrence. In lumber, the size classifications are: Pin knot, one not over 1/2-inch in diameter; Small, a knot larger than 1/2-inch but not over 3/4-inch; Medium, larger than 3/4-inch but not over 1 1/2-inches; Large, over 1 1/2-inches in diameter.

 

PLYWOOD: A flat panel made up of a number of thin sheets, or veneers, of wood in which the grain direction of each ply, or layer, is at right angles to the one adjacent to it. The veneer sheets are united, under pressure, by a bonding agent.

 

ROUGH LUMBER: Lumber which has not been dressed or surfaced but has been sawn, edged, and trimmed.

 

SOFTWOOD: A general term referring to any variety of trees having narrow, needle-like or scale-like leaves, generally coniferous. The term has nothing to do with the actual softness of the wood; some "softwoods" are harder than certain "hardwood" species.

 

SPECIES: A category of biological classification; a class of individuals having common attributes and designated by a common name. "Species" is always properly used with the "s" when referring to trees or other biological classifications.

 

VENEER: Wood peeled, sawn, or sliced into sheets of a given constant thickness and combined with glue to produce plywood or laminated-veneer lumber. Veneers laid up with the grain direction of adjoining sheets at the right angles produce plywood of great stiffness and strength, while those laid up with grains running parallel produced flexible plywood most often used in furniture and cabinetry.

 

 

 

 
 
LUMBER TERMS & SPECIE GUIDE
LUMBER RESOURCES
While our lumber resources primarily originate from the Midwest, we acquire lumber from all over the world, and ship and sell lumber worldwide. We've provided this lumber terms and specie guide to aid you in your selection process.
LUMBER TERMS
BUYING BY THE BOARD FOOT
Until the late 1800's, lumber was sold by the pound. Under that system, dry boards were less expensive than green wood. So obviously something had to be done. Today, when you purchase this type of lumber, you buy it by the board foot. The system of measurement that evolved centers around a measurement that covers all the dimensional variables of cabinet-grade lumber, thickness, width, and length.

.To help you estimate your lumber needs, we have provided you with the formula to figure board footage, below: A board foot, simply, is equal to 144 cubic inches of wood. Think of it as a piece 1 inch thick and 12 inches square.

Since board footage is always calculated in quarters of an inch thickness, starting at no less than 1 inch (even if you order less than an inch), a 5/4 board 6 inches wide and 72 inches long would be figured like this: 1.25 (thickness) x 6 (width) x72 (length) = 540. Divide 540 by 144 to determine the number of board feet in the stock. If the board length is stated in feet rather than inches, use the same method but divide your total by 12 instead of 144.

Board Foot Conversion The following are formulas for converting surface footage to board footage.

Inches Thickness (X) Width (X) Length in inches = total-then divide the total by 144

Feet Thickness (X) Width (X) Length in feet = total-then divide the total by 12

SOFTWOOD LUMBER GRADES

Most softwood trees are readily recognized by their excurrent form, having a single, tall, straight trunk with small lateral branches.

White Pine - C Select - This is the highest NELMA Pine grade. We put our C Select up 6" & wider, 8' and longer. Allows only one sound, tight pin knot (max. 1/2") per 4 surface feet.

White Pine - D Select - This is a finish grade admitting a few sound defects which cover smoothly with a paint finish. Material of this grade is best used for natural or stained finished fine woodworking or interior trim. Allowed one sound, tight pin knot per surface foot.

White Pine - Finish Grade - A fine appearance knotty grade calling for sound, tight knots.

White Pine - Furniture Grade - This is mill run stock with the selects and industrial pulled out. Sometimes called antique white pine. It contains mostly solid, sound, tight knots, suitable for use in Early American style cabinets and furniture.

White Pine - Premium - This is a good appearance knotty grade. It is used where a slightly rougher natural appearance is desired. It will give a fine smooth painted surface. Grade from best face. Reverse face shall permit sound characteristics of standard.

White Pine - Standard - This is a highly serviceable, general utility grade used chiefly for construction and industrial purposes. It may be used where a coarser rustic decorative appearence is desired.

Aromatic Red Cedar - No. 1 Com & Btr - The trees do not grow large; therefore the lumber is often short and narrow and contains many knots. The boards will be one-half or more usable, admitting sound tight knots.

HARDWOOD LUMBER GRADES
Most hardwood trees tend to be dendritic in form, having a trunk that divides and subdivides.

Board Foot (BF): The basic unit of lumber measurement, equal to a 1" board that is 12" wide and 12" long. A 1 x 12-10' long contains 10 board feet,as does a 2 x 6-10' long. When figuring board feet, nominal rather than actual sizes are assumed. The abbreviation MBF means 1,000 board feet.

Brown: Lumber that has been sorted for heartwood - usually Hard or Soft Maple.

Domestic: Lumber that grows in the United States.

Flat Sawn: The grain of the wood runs horizontal.

Heartwood: Lumber that comes from the inside or dead part of the tree.

Imported: Lumber that doesn't grow in the United States.

Kiln Dried (KD): Lumber which has had most of the moisture removed from the board.

Knotty White Pine:White Pine lumber with solid sound tight knots.

No. 1 Com: This is the middle grade in hardwoods. It contains more bark and knots than the top grade, but each board is two-thirds or more usable. For small projects or when a variety of sizes are to be cut, No. 1 Common is more economical. Widths must be 3" and wider and lengths 4' and longer.

No. 2 Com: This is the lowest grade of hardwoods that is normally kiln dried and sold for furniture and cabinet making. Each board must be one-half or more usable. Widths must be 3" and wider and lengths 4' and longer.

Quarter Sawn: The grain of the wood runs vertical.

Sapwood: Lumber that comes from the outside or the live part of the tree.

Sel & Btr: This is the top furniture grade, containing the NHLA grades of Selects and First and Seconds. The lumber will range from clear to pieces which will yield just over 80% clear on the good face. Widths must be 4" and wider and lengths 6' and longer, but most of the lumber will be 6" and wider and 8 to 16 feet long.

Stained: Lumber that has mineral discoloration or stain due to improper drying.

Unselected: Lumber that has a mix of heartwood and sapwood.

Walnut & Butternut Grades: are lower than those for other hardwoods, due to the scarcity of good timber. The widths and lengths will not be as good and the yield will be lower, so plan accordingly.

White: Lumber sorted for the white sapwood - usually Hard or Soft Maple.

Wormy Soft Maple: All the cuttings (the parts used to determine grade) have to be sound and to be a worm hole it must be 1/8" or smaller. Soft means soft compared to hard maple.

 
 
 

 
 
 
 
 

 

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